Prior to 1972, the primary and upper primary schools in Uttar Pradesh were run, maintained and controlled by District Boards and municipalities including municipal corporations etc. constituted under various acts related to management of local bodies i.e.
U.P. Kshetra Samiti and Zila Parishad Adhiniyam, 1961.
U.P. Municipalities Act, 1916.
U.P. Nagar Mahapalika Adhiniyam, 1959.
Considering urgent need to improve literacy in the state, it was felt that education needed planned interventions from the state Government. In this background, the Government of Uttar Pradesh passed the Uttar Pradesh Basic Education Act, 1972 (U.P. Act No. 34 of 1972).
The main objective of this act is to organise, co-ordinate and control imparting of basic education in schools other than high schools or intermediate colleges. By this Act, an Autonomous Body named "Uttar Pradesh Board of Basic Education" was constituted under chairmanship of the Director, Basic Education. All schools which were managed and controlled by local bodies have since then been transferred to the Board. The Board of Basic Education controls appointment, transfer and posting of basic school teachers, determines school timings and gives recognition to private schools imparting basic education in the state.
Uttar Pradesh Board of Basic Education Act 1972 has been amended in year 2000, incorporating principle of devolution of powers to the village community and management of education has been decentralised for empowering grassroot participatory agencies. Other acts relating to basic education were also amended.
There is a committee for each village or group of villages called Gram Shiksha Samiti whose constitution is as follows :
Gram Shiksha Samiti would establish, control and plan basic schools in its panchayat areas. It would prepare plans for development and improvement of the schools. Major functions also include giving advice regarding building and other improvement plans to Zila Panchayat.